Reproductive medicine has made striking progress in recent decades. While the scientists had great difficulties in developing appropriate incubation media for extracorporeal fertilization 30 years ago, this is now no longer a problem.
The removal of oocytes is now much easier. Ultrasound control makes it possible to remove cells by needle from the Uterus of the woman. The success rate of insemination is now around 15 percent per cycle – this is a value comparable to fertile couples. A pregnancy test is also quite cheap and reliable.
The most striking development is when one compares the medication in children’s wishes at the time. At the beginning of the 1980s, the development of medication schemes presented major problems to the treating physicians. For fear of overdosing, too little doses were administered to the patients, so that not enough eggs could reach for the puncture in the ovary.
Today it is possible to calculate the demand so accurately that the risk of overdosing is negligible. If cysts are formed in women’s ovaries after the administration of hormone preparations, they can be surgically removed. As a rule, ovarian cysts are only a few centimeters large and do not cause any discomfort. With the help of modern ultrasound devices, tissue changes in the ovary can be detected within a few millimeters; however, these are not harmful and have no disease value.
Clomiphene citrate: the means of choice in children’s needs
Various means are used in a stimulation cycle. Clomiphene citrate is an active ingredient that stimulates maturation of the egg and induces ovulation. The patient takes the drug once or twice a day. The body starts immediately with the release of LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone). Like all chemically based drugs, clomiphene citrate also causes side effects in some patients. Since the remedy has an anti-oestrogenic effect, the symptoms resemble those that women show in the menopause. Among the most common complaints are depressive moods, headaches and hot flashes.
It is recommended to use the medication for a maximum of three to six cycles, otherwise the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity may be affected. Slime production is increased after taking clomiphene citrate; there is also an increased probability of a multiple pregnancy.
Modern drugs are injected subcutaneously
LH and LSH are now available as highly purified drugs that the patient can inject himself subcutaneously. Modern preparations are produced using genetic engineering and rarely trigger allergic reactions around the injection site. The substance is injected into the skin using an injection pen. This procedure is absolutely safe and requires no medical supervision.
So-called GnRH analogues are synthetically produced drugs which are very similar to GnRH (gonadotropin releasing) hormone. The formation of the female sex hormone estradiol is largely suppressed by it. In this way, the patient is temporarily transferred to the menopause – premature ovulation is thus excluded. GnRH analogues can be used as a nasal spray or as a syringe.